MAYAN ROUTE

1st. day

                                                                             EDZNÁ

It is only 70 km from the city of Campeche.

  Itza is the name of a lineage of Chontal origin that was established on the site. By extension, the settlers of other settlements referred to the inhabitants of this ancient Mayan city as "Itzaes"; from here comes his name: Ytzná / Edzná: "House of the Itzaes" - "Gestures or Echoes"

Edzná is the only archaeological zone that has three types of Mayan architecture used at that time, which are the "Puuc", "Chenes" and "Petén Guatemalteco" styles.

 

                                                                          HOCHOB

 

HOCHOB means "corn cobs".

As in other settlements in the Chenes regionHochob began to be inhabited since 300 AD. The buildings that are still standing today were built between 600 and 900 AD. C., but the greatest splendor in the political, social and architectural was between the years 850 to 1000 after our era.

 

                                                                          TABASQUEÑO

 

Its name comes at the end of the 20th century, since a short distance north of the site, lived a person from the State of Tabasco. That motivated the explorer Teobert Maler, first to document the Mayan vestiges, to call the Archaeological Zone.

 Tabasqueño is a site whose explored area consists of a rectangular plant bounded on its four sides by buildings characteristic of the Chenes architectural style.

Given the location of Tabasqueño in elevated areas, its former inhabitants had access to water through several sources: two aguadas located east and west of the settlement nucleus; two caves inside the heart of the site and a series of chultunes or underground cisterns for rainwater.

 

                                                                     DZIBILNOCAC 

 

Dzibilnocac is a Mayan name that means "Painted vault or vault with writing".

In February of the year of 1842, the explorers Frederick Catherwood and John Stephens visited the town of Iturbide and some pre hispanic ruins that would later be known as Dzibilnocac.

The toponym of the site is of Yucatec Mayan origin, which translates into Castilian as "painted vault" or vault with writing ", in allusion to the figures and hieroglyphic inscriptions that decorated the interior of a room.

 

2nd day

                                                                       CALAKMUL

Calakmul was discovered at the beginning of the 30s of the last century, but it was not until the 1980s that systematic research allowed us to discover the essence of this city as one of the most important of the Classic Maya. The most recent investigations have concluded that Calakmul is the most important city of the Classic Maya and together with Tikal and Palenque they headed the political organization of the highlands. Hieroglyphic studies have shown a history of wars between Calakmul and Tikal for almost a century of history, which speaks of the political rivalry of these cities. There is a unique urban planning, with large ceremonial plazas and residential complexes.

It is also the site where a greater number of stelae have been found in the Mayan area, many of them from the Late Preclassic period (400 a.C.).

 

                                                                                      BALAMKÚ

 

                                                                Cultural Importance

 

It has an approximate extension of 1 km², it is integrated by 3 architectural groups: the south group, the central and the north, of which the first 2 have been excavated, but only partially.

 

 The most important archaeological piece of the site is in the southern group, it is a large frieze of polychrome stucco, exceptional in the Mayan sites, called "The frieze of the universe". It was decreed as an Area Subject to Ecological Conservation on August 14, 2003.

 

 

3th day

                                                                       BECAN

 

The existence of a moat that surrounds the Becán nuclear area determined its name, which in Yucatec Maya means "Road or cavity left by the running of water".

 

 Becan is a site of singular importance to be surrounded by an artificial pit that for some researchers is evidence of the high warlike activity between this and other neighboring sites. To enter the monumental area surrounded by the moat there are seven entrances, which could be accessed by the population settled outside it and dedicated to agricultural and craft work. Because of its importance and location, Becan is considered a regional capital, that is, it headed the territorial political organization of other minor settlements.

 

                                                                  CHICANNÁ

 

Chicanná means in Yucatec Maya "in the house of the mouth of the serpent" (Chi: mouth, Can: snake, Ná: house).

 

It is the site that has the largest number of "Río Bec" type buildings in good condition. The panels of masks that have Structures I, VI and XX, are good examples of regional iconography and show the evolution of the representations of the Monster of the Earth; On the other hand, the analysis of the archaeological materials of Chicanná makes possible the interpretation of the existing relations between the old city of Becán and this peripheral center so close to the regional metropolis.

 

 

                                                                       XPUHIL

 

                                                            Cultural Importance

 

The first evidence of occupation dates from 400 a. C. but its most important stage reaches the Terminal Classic, although it is possible that from the Early Classic, Xpuhil and the entire Rio Bec region began to be constituted as a well-defined ethnic block peninsular. One feature that stands out in the site is that the so-called Building 1 is atypical in terms of its architecture since it has three towers instead of the two typical Rio Bec style.

 

 Chronology: 400 a. C. to 1200 d. C.

 

Main chronological location: Late Classic, 600 to 800 d. C.

 

Recently, the archaeologist Vicente Suárez Aguilar has carried out research, conservation and archeological salvage work of groups 3 and 20 located within the urban area and current periphery of the municipal capital of Xpujil. These settlements, in total 24, are part of the great pre-Hispanic city known as the archaeological zone of Xpuhil, which covers 6 kilometers from east to west by 2 from north to south.



MAYAN ADVENTURE II

1st day

                                           RIO BEC (XPUJIL, BECÁN, CHICANÁ)

                                                                                                     

                                                                        Xpuhil

 

                                                            Cultural Importance

 The first evidence of occupation dates from 400 a. C. but its most important stage reaches the Terminal Classic, although it is possible that from the Early Classic, Xpuhil and the entire Rio bec region began to be constituted as a well-defined ethnic block peninsular. One feature that stands out in the site is that the so-called Building 1 is atypical in terms of its architecture since it has three towers instead of the two typical Rio Bec style.

 Chronology: 400 a. C. to 1200 d. C.

 Main chronological location: Late Classic, 600 to 800 d. C.

 Recently, the archaeologist Vicente Suárez Aguilar has carried out research, conservation and archeological salvage work of groups 3 and 20 located within the urban area and current periphery of the municipal capital of Xpujil. These settlements, in total 24, are part of the great pre-Hispanic city known as the archaeological zone of Xpuhil, which covers 6 kilometers from east to west by 2 from north to south.

 

                                                                               BECAN

 

The existence of a moat that surrounds the Becán nuclear area determined its name, which in Yucatec Maya means "Road or cavity left by the running of water".

 

 Becan is a site of singular importance to be surrounded by an artificial pit that for some researchers is evidence of the high warlike activity between this and other neighboring sites. To enter the monumental area surrounded by the moat there are seven entrances, which could be accessed by the population settled outside it and dedicated to agricultural and craft work. Because of its importance and location, Becan is considered a regional capital, that is, it headed the territorial political organization of other minor settlements.

 

                                                                         CHICANNÁ

 

Chicanná means in Maya "in the house of the mouth of the serpent" (Chi: mouth, Can: snake, Ná: house).

 

It is the site that has the largest number of "Río Bec" type buildings in good condition. The panels of masks that have Structures I, VI and XX, are good examples of regional iconography and show the evolution of the representations of the Monster of the Earth; On the other hand, the analysis of the archaeological materials  of Chicanná makes possible the interpretation of the existing relations between the old city of Becán and this peripheral center so close to the regional metropolis.

 

2nd day   

                                                                    CALAKMUL

   Calakmul means in Maya "Two Adjacent Mounds" (Ca two, adjacent Lak, Mul artificial mound or pyramid), a name that refers to the two large structures that dominate the jungle.

The most recent investigations have concluded that Calakmul is the most important city of the Classic Maya and together with Tikal and Palenque they headed the political organization of the highlands. Hieroglyphic studies have shown a history of wars between Calakmul and Tikal for almost a century of history, which speaks of the political rivalry of these cities. There is a unique urban planning, with large ceremonial plazas and residential complexes.

                                                                       

                                                                       BALAMKÚ

The name of the site derives from the Mayan words: Balam (jaguar) and Kú (temple), meaning "Temple of the Jaguar". This name refers to one of the jaguars embodied in the modeled and polychrome stucco frieze that crowns the I-A Sub-structure of the Central Group, which characterizes this pre-Hispanic city.

In Balamkú there is a modeled and painted stucco frieze unique in the Mayan area, which was elaborated between 550 and 600 d. C. In the frieze there are 4 ascension scenes alternated with three jaguars. Each one comprises an animal with its head turned backwards, seated in the frontal slit of a mask of the Monster of the Earth; his mouth, gives way to a king on his throne. In addition to illustrating in detail the opposite and complementary aspects of the underworld, the set shows that the dynastic cycle is equated to the solar cycle. In this conception, the accession to the throne is illustrated by the king coming out of the fauces of the terrestrial monster, as the Sun leaves the mouth of the Earth; The death of the king is seen as a sunset, when it falls into the mouth of the Earth Monster.

 

3th day

                                                                    RUTA PUUC

 Uxmal and Kabah, Sayil are among the three most extensive and complex Mayan cities of the Puuc region, the only accorded territory of the Yucatan peninsula.

 

                                                                            SAYIL

In the Mayan language, the word "say" is used to refer to this species of insects (ants) that usually cut and carry pieces of leaves. In contrast to most known names for pre-Hispanic sites, this could have a true antiquity.

Its buildings are many and varied, from palaces with 99 rooms and stone ceilings; even small houses for small families. In addition to El Palacio, there is also El Mirador, which has a temple in its highest part, from where you can see the city, where you can see the way it was distributed. Very close to here is what was once a market and the ball game.

                                                                       

                                                                            KABAH

 His name comes to mean "the strong and powerful hand." It is believed that this name is associated with the representation at its entrance, where a sculpture represents a man, who holds a snake with his hand.

The city is formed around an axis, which goes from north to south and its buildings are connected by roadways, or sacbés. One of these roads, larger, is the one that goes through the triumphal arch and reaches Uxmal, which is about 37 km.

On the walls of the rooms that make up these constructions, there are paintings made with red handprints. For this reason, this group receives the name, in the Mayan language, from Dzalkabilkik, which means "place of the hands of blood".

                                                                         

                                                                          Uxmal

At present it is one of the most important archaeological sites of the Mayan culture, along with those of Chichén Itzá and Tikal. It is located in the municipality of Santa Elena in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. It is located in the so-called Puuc Zone and is the most representative city of this architectural style

 

Meaning

The current name seems to derive from Oxmal which means "three times built" and it seems to refer to its antiquity and the times it had to be rebuilt.

However the etymology is discussed, another possibility is Uchmal which means "what is to come, what is future". In this way there is a coincidence of tradition that assumes that it is an "invisible city" and was built in one night by the magic of the dwarf king.

 

 Architecture

Its buildings are typically of the Puuc style, with smooth low walls on which very ornate friezes are opened based on representations of the typical Mayan huts, which are represented by columns (representing the reeds with which the walls of huts were built ) and trapezoidal figures (representing the roofs of straw), linked snakeand, in many cases, two-headed, masks of the god of rain, Chaac with his big noses that represent the rays of storms, and serpents feathered with the jaws.